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Первая Мировая Война в Месопотамии и русские части

Fan: Интересный рассказ. Английский летчик вспоминает свой полет на поиск передовых частей русских в Месопотамии весной 1917года. Звучит фамилия русского генерала Baratoff. Судя по всему имеется в виду Баратов: http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Баратов,_Николай_Николаевич, а на англоязычной Вики даже еще подробнее: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nikolai_Baratov +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ http://www.archive.org/stream/incloudsabovebag00tennrich/incloudsabovebag00tennrich_djvu.txt ... [more]At 6 a.m. on the morning of the 2nd I left Baghdad in a Martinsyde with the despatch that General Maude had been trying to get through to Baratoff, for as yet no meeting had taken place between the Cossacks and the patrols of Keary's column. My course took me straight out across the Jebel Hamrin to Khanikin, and over the Persian foothills to Kasr-i-Shirin. It was a lovely spring day, the country below was green, the air above cool and bracing; how good it felt to be clear of Mesopotamia. Looking back I could just discern the hill country disappearing down to the thick haze of noonday in the desert ; looking ahead it seemed I was flying into a great wall of massive peaks, with their snows scintillating in the sun- light above me. I opened my throttle and climbed to 10,000 feet, but only caught a view of further snows beyond. The beauty of it to the eye, wearied by dust and desert, was intoxicating. It was a different world, and the desire was strong to land in one of those remote little glens where one could roll in the grass and bathe in the burn. I had not seen grass for nine long months. At Kasr-i-Shirin the road turns almost south- east before the long thirty-five mile climb up to the Pai Tak Pass, the gateway from the high plateaux of Persia down to the plains of Mesopo- tamia. After flying for three hours I spied a column of cavalry on the march, passing a village called Miankul. Not knowing if they were retreating Turks or advancing Russians, I glided slowly down. They made no movement to fire, so I glided on lower and lower till, in answer to my hand-wave, they threw their fur caps in the air; I knew that at last we were in touch with the Russians. I landed on a patch of level ground not far off the road, and they galloped up, solemnly saluted, and shook me by the hand, each in turn. This wild-looking group of Cossacks, clustered around me in their picturesque long coats and sheepskin hats cocked at a rakish angle, against the background of mountain valley and pass winding away up to the rugged snow hills, made a scene I shall not forget. They had come from Caucasia, down past the Caspian to Persia, a march of a thousand miles through uncivilised coun- tries, no lines of communication behind them, and without transport, finding what they could to live on as they went. Their little ponies were skin and bone, they themselves hard and lean, burnt black by the sun in striking contrast to 'their blue eyes and fair moustaches. Two or three junior officers were there, but not a word of any language had we in common. The despatch they understood, and I pointed up 'the pass and said "Baratoff." I had left my engine just ticking over, and having only sufficient petrol to take me straight back to Baghdad could spare no further time ; once stopped, the problem of starting again was too uncertain. They each saluted, again shook me by the hand, and as I left the ground gave a weird shout and threw their hats in the air. It had been a dramatic meeting. With regret I dropped back into the Mesopotamian desert from that beautiful mountain region of snow and wild flowers, and after five hours' flying into wha: had seemed some dream country landed in 'the relentless heat and glare of Baghdad. The same morning a small column under Brigadier-General Edwardes, that had pushed out to Kizil Robat, met a " sotnia " of Cossacks who had been sent far on in advance to establish com- munication with 'the English army. [/more]

Ответов - 9

Fan: Через несколько дней этот английский летчик совершил еще один полет на встречу с русскими. Вот его впечатления. Интересно, а с русской стороны есть воспоминания об этом походе? ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ On this day I left once more with despatches from General Maude to General Baratoff, whose advanced troops had occupied Kasr-i-Shirin, and were picqueted along the line of the Diala above the Jebel Hamrin. The morning was hot, and getting through the first 4,000 feet behind the big Beardmore engine of a Martinsyde scout was as warm a performance as the engine-room watch in a destroyer. However, the prospect of another day among the hills banished all feelings of discomfort in the getting there. A detour on the way out disclosed the enemy columns winding down on to the plain near Deli Abbas, a long string of crawling an'ts followed by the white specks of ambulance waggons. It was lovely to get back among these ranges again, but this time my flight only 'took me as far as Kasr-i- Shirin, 120 miles N.E. of Baghdad, and just over the Persian frontier. I landed on a rough grassy space about a mile outside the town, among the stones which are the ruins of the great Sassanian Palace of Shirin, the mistress of King Parwiz. Bits of this lady's palace were nearly the undoing of my aeroplane, which only by mere luck came to rest on the stony slope without hitting any of these relics of ancient majesty. Cossacks streamed over a knoll which hid the town from view, and soon some Russian officers, including a colonel, arrived with an escort and spare pony. After much saluting and hand-shaking, I mounted this ragged animal and, leaving sentries to guard the machine, we rode solemnly towards the 'town. Just outside we came upon the bivouac of an infantry battalion, the guard was turned out in waiting, and to my surprise there was also a brass band. They had no ammunition; they had no food or forage ; they had come hundreds of miles over burning desert and ice-bound moun- tain passes, and through all they had stuck to their brass band ! As we approached it struck up " God Save the King." We dismounted with our hands at the salute; all the verses were played through, and I was about to drop my hand, when the anthem started again. I think they played the National Anthem for ten minutes without stopping ; each time the last chords of the refrain were reached I thought it was the end, and I could allow my cramped arm to drop, but immediately the band would start again. At last they could blow no more; the remainder of the battalion and many Cossacks had collected, their colonel made a short speech, raised his hat in the air, and the Russian army gave vent to some wild cheering which necessitated further saluting on my part. A procession of officers was then formed, and we adjourned to the only tent. It was of single thickness, and 'the sun's rays had made the atmo- sphere within like an oven. As many officers as possible wedged themselves in, the colonel and I being the only two who had chairs. So far not a word had been exchanged ; I could talk no Russian and they had neither English nor French. So they conversed excitedly together and gaped at me. " Arak " (native spirit) was produced, and with wild acclamation we drank to +he health of both nations. Fortunately Colonel Rowlandson, 'the British liaison officer with the Russian army, soon rescued me from the appalling atmosphere, and we rode on into Kasr-i-Shirin. There I met the Russian officer in command and handed him the despatch for General Baratoff. The Staff were magnificently dressed in long dark coats, belted and skirted, curved swords and daggers in ivory scabbards, ivory cartridge cases across their breasts, and white sheepskin caps. The valleys were hot enough, but one wondered how they would fare in that kit if they went down into Mesopotamia. The rank and file were ragged, and few of their jack-boots had the soles intact; some of them walked about with cloth wrapped round their feet. Kasr-i-Shirin is a pretty little hill village, a mountain stream running past in the glen below; it looked enticingly clean and cool, and the Russian soldiers were bathing in its pools. We had lunch in the building once occupied by the Indo-Persian Telegraph Company, since wrecked by the Turks. It was an interesting luncheon party; a few of the staff could talk French, and one, I recollect, was a Hungarian who had espoused the Russian cause. Fortunately there was only sufficient " Arak " 'to go round, and the rest of the drinking was done in tea. Arak is a fire water made of raisins ; it was the heat of the day, and there was the long flight back to Baghdad in front of me. I was escorted back to the aero- plane, and to the tune of " God Save the King ' by that amazing brass band, I waved farewell to my enthusiastic friends and left the ground for Baghdad. After another detour to observe the progress of the i3th Turkish Corps I landed at Fort Kermeah, on the Tigris. The weather had stoked up considerably in the last few days, and it was with difficulty that the water in one's radiator was kept from boiling. Six hours' flying in a Martinsyde left one like a wet rag, and drove me down before reaching Headquarters.

Fan: Еще из той же книги английского летчика Джона Теннанта. Новый герой: генерал (или полковник) Bicharakov. Позднее он поступил на службу англичнанам и участвовал в боях против Красной Армии. ++++++++++++++++++++++++++ [~ноябрь 1917] A volunteer force of Cossacks under General Bicharakov had made their appearance from the mountains of Persia. With 'the revolution the Russians had melted away to their homes in the Caucasus, but Bicharakov and his men, being royalist to the core, preferred to pursue their profession as soldiers of fortune in the cause of the Allies to returning to their distressful country. Colonel Leslie was Chief of the Staff to Bicharakov ; in spite of his name he was a Russian, and knew not a word of English or French. A genial old boy, of gigantic proportions, he was descended from Scottish ancestors. This fact we were not allowed to forget. He came down to Baghdad, and we lunched one very hot day aboard the " Mantis." Buxton produced a wonderful repast, thoroughly appreciated by our friend, who put away vast quantities, and in spite of the sun washed it down with flagons of creme de menthe. Between refills he would get up and toast the Czar, the latter Emperor having already been deposed; revolution being rife in Russia. After wonderful barbaric orations, and having drunk our healths in turn, he would again wedge his huge body into a chair with a sigh and assure us that he only lived for the day when he could retire 'to his native Scotland ! I expected him to subside with heat apoplexy every minute. The Cossacks, with Corps Cavalry, were to cross the Diala on our extreme right and work round the enemy 'towards Kara Tepe, an infantry brigade on their left to cross near Kizil Robat and march on Kara Tepe, and a brigade to attack each of the passes in the hills on the enemy's front and right. It was a converging movement of extreme width; there must have been fifty miles between the Cavalry Division on the Adhaim and the Cossacks on the Diala. Prior to this, on the night of the 30th November, Lieuts. Skinner and Morris raided the enemy's aircraft at Kifri by moonlight. Due to ground mis't little result was attained. ..... [декабрь 1917] The Cossacks and our cavalry detachment occupied ground about four miles north-east of Kara Tepe, and stopped all traffic on 'the Kifri Road. Air reconnaissance reported the enemy in position on high ground jus't north of the town, and the bridge over the Nahrin river at Nahrin Kupri blown up. At 4 p.m. 'the enemy attacked the Russians, but was repulsed by machine-gun and shell fire. On the 5th the 35th and 4Oth Brigades passed through Kara Tepe, and, supported by artillery, captured the position; the Turks, screened by 'the hilly country, fled towards Kifri and along the Abu Alik Road.

Fan: А вот еще интересное из той же книги воспоминаний Теннанта 1920года: перелет Багдад --> Тегеран (январь 1918г) и обратно и некоторая роль казаков при этом. ... Colonel Stokes, who had been military attache in Teheran for several years before the war, was ordered 'to reach the British Legation at that place as soon as possible. A convoy of Ford cars, under Major Sir Walter Bart'telot, were making prepara- tions to trek from Baghdad, but would probably take some weeks to get through. Stokes approached me about getting there by air, and we decided it was a practicable, though perhaps hazardous, undertaking. Teheran is seven hundred miles from Baghdad; the course lay over 12,000 feet mountain ranges and wild uncivilised country. There was no map of any accuracy, and 'the winding road lost itself among snows and mountain passes. It promised to be a wonderful flight, and one felt a great desire to see this remote capital, situated high up in the mountains hundreds of miles from civilisation, a centre of the intrigue of many nations. But it was impossible for me to go. Browning, who had been with us as observer before the capture of Baghdad and was now a full-blown pilot, was entrusted with the enterprise. Two machines started off, one carrying extra petrol instead of a passenger. They both replenished at Kasr-i-Shirin, and went on to Kirmanshah. Land- ing at Kirmanshah, one was filled up with the spare fuel from the other, and thus able to negotiate the further three hundred miles to Teheran. Browning left Kirmanshah in a snowstorm on the morning of the 24th, and climbed to 13,500 feet on a bearing for Asabad. He did not again pick up the ground till near Kangavar, and only just cleared the Asabad Pass. The 19,000 feet peak of Demavand, behind Teheran, was sighted a hundred and eighty miles away, and gave a good landmark. On arrival at the Persian capital all efforts were made to intern him by 'the Swedish gendarmerie, in spite of the fact that machine-guns and other armament had been stripped from his aeroplane at Kirmanshah, so 'that he should not violate neutrality. (British, Russian, and Turkish forces had been fighting in Persia for two years !) But the designs of the Swedes were frustrated by the superior numbers of Cossacks present. A guard of forty was maintained to preserve the machine from destruction. The natives of Teheran could not understand 'that the aeroplane itself was the means of flight, but thought it only the carriage to sit in, and that the propeller merely acted as a fan to keep the airman cool while he exerted himself with some hidden wings, which they were very intent to discover on the person of the pilo't. They examined Browning's flying badge, but pointed out in argument that these " wings " were too small to fly with, and that there must be others elsewhere. The town was crowded with enemy, particularly Austrians freed by the Bolsheviks from Russian prisons. The German flag flew cheerfully opposite the Union Jack on the respective Lega- tions. The warring nationalities kept sullenly to themselves. The Shah's palace is outside the town ; he expressed great curiosity to see 'the British aero- plane, but did not dare to come into Teheran : 'there were those who were engaged in starving the popu- lation, having appropriated all the wheat in order to put up the price. Meanwhile Browning awaited the arrival of the Ford convoy, to refill with fuel for the return journey. The time was spent playing poker with Swedes and Russians and their ladies. The night before taking off he received a note from the Shah requesting him to fly over his palace on his return journey. Immediately before starting, however, came another note cancelling the request in case foreign eyes should probe the sanctity of the harem from above. Browning had telegraphed to me, via India, that he had landed in a barrack square, out of which it was hazardous work to fly the aeroplane. I had wired back suggesting knocking down a gap in the wall; this apparently entailed the demolition of the Regular Persian Army barracks, and the project was but coldly received by the Legation ! However, he eventually flew out into the open country by emptying the tanks and lightening his machine. Before leaving, Sir Charles Marling insisted that a passenger, who could speak Persian, should accompany Browning in case of a forced landing. Their " ghulam " (porter) was accordingly ordered to go, and thoroughly enjoyed the flight to Kir- manshah, where oil and petrol were picked up. From there Colonel Bicharakov, commanding the Russian Partisan Detachment, was brought down to Baghdad. It was a notable achievement; our aeroplanes then were not Handley-Pages or Vickers-Vimy.

Fan: Теннант попал в плен, но вскоре был освобожден, и в процессе его освобождения опять появляется слово "казак"! Внизу описывается процесс освобождения. +++++++++++++++++++++ ... [март 1918г] We were having our first wash on the banks of the Euphrates at about n a.m., when a Cossack galloped past shouting " Auto!" (automobile), but I paid no attention, as I was certain that our fellows could not come nearly as far; we did not know the extent of the defeat of the Turkish force. In fact, we had given up any idea of being rescued, under the impression that there could be nobody within fifty miles. The Tartars, however, seemed alarmed, and became threatening. We managed to cool them down, got on our camels, and went on. Suddenly there burst the regular stammer of a Maxim quite close; we looked up expecting to see another aeroplane ; it was so loud and sudden that the idea flashed through our minds 'that an aeroplane had landed to attempt our escape, and we threw our- selves off our camels and made for the cover of the river bank. But there, a hundred yards along the road, as large as life, was an armoured car, with others behind. I howled it to Hobart, and we went with heads down as if all the devils in hell were after us. The Tartars scattered behind the rocks under the machine-gun fire ; we never looked round. The officer commanding the cars, Captain Tod, leapt out and dragged us into the turret, the men within yelling with excitement. It was beyond one's wildest dreams. We lay and panted and talked 'till the open plain was reached, where sniping would be impossible. There the cars halted, and we all jumped out; whiskey and bully-beef were produced the most wonderful meal of one's life. But for its perfect execution Tod's exploit could never have been achieved. He told us that the Cavalry Brigade were in Ana, Bob Cassels having got behind the entire Turkish force. To finish off his triumph Cassels determined to get us back, and told Tod to pursue with his armoured cars up to 100 miles; if necessary he would feed him with petrol by aeroplane. Tod came on, scattering the retreating enemy as he went; the sight of the low rakish cars terrified the Turk and Arab, who cleared off the road under cover of the rocks to let him go by. Many surrendered, and were left by the road- side without their arms ; at Nahiyeh, where we had spent the night, a few bursts of machine-gun fire induced our sleek young friend to haul down the star- and-crescent and surrender the fort; the dirty Armenian informed Tod that we were only a few hours ahead, and on camels. The utmost caution was now necessary, for the escort had only to drag us a few yards off the road and we should have been lost among the rocks, inaccessible to armoured cars ; or even a surprise semi-complete would give the guards time to put a bullet through us as they made good their escape. Tod, in the leading car, a snake-like Rolls-Royce, sighted us from a hill some miles away, and crept on cannily. It must have been about this time that the Cossack had galloped past shouting " Auto ! " and it was well that we had managed to quiet our guards and induced them to consider, as we honestly did our- selves, that there could not possibly be any cause for a scare. Meanwhile Tod shortened his distance ; the road bending among the rocky cliffs helped him, and 'then he was suddenly on top of us ; seated at the gun himself, cool and steady, he let fly over our heads; the rest remained with the gods, and 1 have told about it. =================================== Автор этой книги - John Edward Tennant был "killed in action" 7 августа 1941 года...

klen7832: Было бы не плохо, если бы Вы потрудились сделать перевод, хотябы общую суть рассказов.

nikolai: А есь ли какая-нибудь информация о полётах русских лётчиков в Иране в 1917-1918 г.г.?

Удафф: nikolai пишет: А есь ли какая-нибудь информация о полётах русских лётчиков в Иране в 1917-1918 г.г.? Вы смотрели Шишов - Персидский фронт (М., 2010)? Работа общая, но возможно там есть инфа по летчикам

nikolai: Благодарю


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